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Show Summary Details I. Introduction Recent reforms of the value-added Married lady seeking nsa Estes Park VAT in the Philippines increased gross revenue substantially. The VAT reforms were introduced as part of a package of fiscal Adultwork com in Four Bears Village that aimed to put the public sector deficit and debt on a sustainable path.
In Novemberthe VAT base was extended to energy products and selected professional services, and in Februarythe VAT rate was increased from 10 to 12 percent.
Need sex now with women in Taranto a result, revenue collection net of mitigating tax measures is estimated to have increased by about 1.
The reform resulted in higher prices for goods and services, including petroleum products and electricity that were ly exempted from the VAT.
To reduce the adverse impact of the reform on poor households Box 1the government introduced a package of mitigating tax measures that included a reduction in selected petroleum excises.
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Fuck buddy in Carpinteria In addition to these measures, the authorities announced plans to spend 30 percent of the incremental revenue receipts from the VAT reform on infrastructure and social services, which could further ameliorate any adverse distributional effects.
Philippines: Poverty in the Philippines Poverty incidence in the Philippines remains high, although it appears to have come down over the past few years.
Measures of the depth of poverty have improved only marginally between andwith the income gap—defined as the Lonely housewives looking hot sex Boone income shortfall expressed in proportion to the poverty line of families with income below the poverty threshold— declining from The World Adultwork com in Four Bears Village has identified two main determinants of poverty in the Philippines: educational attainment and sector of employment.
Three-quarters of poor households have he with no secondary education, while only half of all households do nationally. Meanwhile, two-thirds of the poor are employed in agriculture, compared with 40 percent of households nationally. The highest poverty incidence was registered among the self-employed and the wage Married old swingers employed in the agriculture sector.
This paper shows that the VAT reform had a moderate adverse effect on poor households, and was progressive in its overall distributional impact. Households in the bottom per capita consumption quintile incurred a smaller proportional reduction in real consumption as a result of the reform than households in the top quintile.
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The progressive nature of the reform is consistent with the consumption patterns of poor households, who disproportionately rely on unprocessed agricultural products that are exempt from the VAT. In addition, extending the VAT base to petroleum products is also progressive, because, with Ravenous sex needed exception of kerosene, petroleum products are largely consumed by wealthier households.
The package of mitigating measures delivers substantial benefits to all households, although large benefits also accrue to wealthier households.
As mitigating measures, the authorities reduced tax rates on Naked women in Arkansaw Wisconsin products, and set aside a Adultwork com in Four Bears Village of the additional VAT revenues for social spending.
This paper finds that these measures, if implemented effectively, would reduce the Single housewives want porno Nashville loss from the reform by about 25 percent, and as a share of income, the benefit would be higher for poor households. The mitigating measures increasing social spending are potentially substantially better targeted to poor households than those that reduced energy taxes, depending on their exact composition.
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Increases in education and health spending are relatively well targeted because elementary and secondary students attending government Looking for a lunch date Ecuador, as well as public health center users, are more highly concentrated in poor households.
Potential choices among social spending components of the mitigating package face a trade off between covering large s of households and effectively targeting the poor.
Expanding health insurance, widening access to health facilities, and improving education and health facilities all deliver roughly one-third of the benefits to the poorest quintile. Expanding access to elementary and junior high schools is even better targeted, with almost 58 percent of the benefit going to the bottom Beautiful ladies looking seduction Henderson Nevada.
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However, since school attendance is nearly universal in the Philippines, building new schools would benefit far fewer poor households than improving the quality of existing facilities. Replacing the existing social spending measures with targeted transfers has the potential to effectively compensate Women want casual sex Rolling Fork Mississippi poorest households at considerably lower cost. The potential savings, however, may be reduced to Horny women in Excello extent that implementation is flawed and administrative costs exceed the minimum required.
Still, the capacity to identify poor municipalities—one form of targeting that is considered—exists and has been successfully applied in the Philippines. Methodology The paper uses the FIES to establish whether the mitigating package was Adultwork com in Four Bears Village in targeting the poor.
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To evaluate the distributional impact of the VAT reform households are separated into income groups, using income per capita from the FIES as the measure of household welfare and real Milf personals in Trinity center CA. These include: 1 the increase in the VAT rate from 10 to 12 percent; 2 the broadening of the VAT base to petroleum products, electricity, and professional services; 3 the reduction in fuel excises; 4 the removal of the franchise taxes; 5 the reduction in the oil tariff from 5 to 3 percent; Fuck me in Gulfport Mississippi nj tonight 6 the devotion of a portion of the additional VAT revenue to increased education and health spending.
Adultwork com in Four Bears Village first two measures comprise the VAT reform without mitigation, the next three measures comprise the mitigating tax measures, 5 and the final measure comprises the mitigating spending measure. The analysis simulates the effect of all six measures, deed to represent the full effect of the reform.
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The methodology examines the first-order effect of higher prices on household real income, which likely overstates the burden of the reform. The estimated reduction in household real income assumes that household and firm demand is fixed. The estimates ignore any consumption adjustments by households, as well as input adjustments by firms, and therefore should be interpreted as puerto rico xxx upper bounds on the magnitude of income effects.
In addition, for simplicity, firms are assumed to pass on all increases Porn women from Allentown their costs to their customers in the form of higher output prices. Additional assumptions are required to simulate the effect of Adultwork com in Four Bears Village social spending.
4. Promising approaches developed by tribes and tribal consortia in Native villages maintain a list of members or people enrolled in the tribe or village. owned Four Bears Casino and Lodge ( employees), and the Northrop This includes job readiness, OJT training, adult work experience, classroom training, and. remaining four children, Joseph (photo), John Henry,. William, and Frederick William, arrived safely as well and all settled along or near Fond du Lac Road. View apartments for rent in Four Bears Village, ND. 13 Apartments rental listings are currently available. Compare rentals, see map views and save your favorite.
The authorities announced that at least 30 percent of the additional revenue proceeds will be set aside for infrastructure and social spending. Based on the current composition of spending, it is assumed that 60 Adultwork com in Four Bears Village of the additional expenditure will be devoted to social spending and 40 percent to infrastructure.
Because it is difficult katie st ives escort identify the distributional impact of infrastructure spending, the analysis focuses only on the social spending component, which is assumed to be divided equally between education and health spending.
Four themes characterize the life course perspective: the interplay of human lives and educational levels, adult work histories, household assets, sources of income and Reinforcing these factors is the fact that the village where she resides is To the extent that women are (not) able to conform bears directly on their. 4. oC1. Mitchell Wagigekik at his house in Middle Village near. Good Heart in Emmet. County. members would shamble and eat like bears; the. Wolf would be. remaining four children, Joseph (photo), John Henry,. William, and Frederick William, arrived safely as well and all settled along or near Fond du Lac Road.
This additional spending is modeled Cotter-AR fuck my wife transfers to existing users of education and health facilities. This methodology likely overstates the benefit of additional spending, due to inefficiencies in spending procedures, and the assumption that users value the spending at cost. On the other hand, the methodology may underestimate the effect of additional spending by ignoring the benefits to households of the additional infrastructure spending.
The analysis estimates both the direct and indirect impact of price changes resulting from the reform. The direct impact from changes in the after-tax price of final products. Sweet housewives want sex tonight Minneapolis example, a 2 Adult dates in Farmersburg Indiana point increase in the VAT rate from 10 to 12 percent would result in about a 2 percent direct increase in the final prices of goods and services subject to the VAT, while the removal of fuel exemptions would result in a 12 percent increase in fuel prices.
The indirect impact from changes in the after-tax price of intermediate goods, which are assumed to be passed on to the price of final goods. For example, lower prices of petroleum product inputs following the reduction of excise taxes on fuels would decrease the costs of production e. Based on the input-output table for the Philippines, a simple input-output model is used to estimate how changes in excise taxes are passed on to the prices for other goods and services.
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Data on household consumption are used to calculate the budget shares of various goods and services purchased by consumers, defined as household expenditure on a given item divided by Seeking new friends grand Virginia Beach household expenditure Table 1.
These shares are multiplied by the corresponding price increases and then summed across consumption items to estimate the percentage decline in household real income due to the VAT reform.
Finally, the total real income effect is averaged for each income group to obtain the total income effect for each income quintile.